37 Crucial WordPress Maintenance Tasks to Perform Regularly
WordPress Maintenance Tasks to perform on a Daily, Weekly, Monthly, and Annually basis
by Remco Nieuwenhuizen
Owner of WPsupporters
As WordPress grows, periodic maintenance tasks help users efficiently manage WordPress-based infrastructures.
For example – a small site with a few pages, images, and assets doesn’t require periodic maintenance.
However, sites with a growing infrastructure – including user management, content updating, and managing User Generated Content (UGC)- need daily, weekly, monthly, and annual maintenance routines.
In this resource – you’ll learn about Crucial WordPress Maintenance Tasks to perform regularly – daily, weekly, monthly, and annually.
Here is a list of Topics you’ll cover in this write-up.
Table of Contents
Introduction to WordPress Maintenance
What is WordPress maintenance?
WordPress maintenance includes performing regular routines – helping users keep WordPress sites safe, secure, speedy, and error-free.
For example – periodic backups help users recover WordPress from disasters. Similarly, optimizing WordPress speed, security, and error-handling helps users improve performance – efficiently.
What comes under WordPress Maintenance?
WordPress maintenance is a broad spectrum – updates, backups, security, speed optimization, error handling, website monitoring, and management fall under WordPress maintenance.
If you have a WordPress website, the WPsupporters team has you covered 24/7.
With an expert WordPress technical support team, your site will be monitored, maintained and kept up-to-date all year round.
Why perform WordPress Maintenance?
Un-attended WordPress sites need to catch up on site security, routine maintenance, and handling WP errors.
If WordPress is left alone – chances of a site’s maintenance, security, and performance become slim.
When to perform WordPress Maintenance?
When you see WordPress errors, slow site speed, White Screen of Death, and random failures – That’s the Time when you need to perform WordPress maintenance. We believe doing WordPress maintenance on a pro-active, frequently basis will prevent gaps occur in WordPress – as described in this resource.
WordPress needs daily, weekly, and monthly maintenance routines in various areas – as described in this resource.
Here are the top 5 signs your WordPress website needs maintenance.
- Slow page speed
- Error messages on screen
- Unused Themes, Inactive Plugins, Spam comments, and Trashed data in dashboard
- Cache problems
- No backup plans for the last month
Note: This resource includes instructions for taking necessary measures on a daily, weekly, monthly, or annually basis.
Importance of WordPress Maintenance
Regarding WordPress maintenance, you could lose customers, leads, and site traffic if your site needs attention.
Losing visitors means – leaving money on the Table.
WordPress Maintenance Frequency: Daily, Weekly, Monthly, and Annually
37 Points with Brief Explanations
One-Time tasks don’t need attention on a regular basis. Here is the list of One-Time tasks for WordPress maintenance.
Remove Unused Themes
Unused, outdated, and Unmanaged WordPress Themes carry loopholes – helping hackers exploit WordPress websites.
After you’ve installed WordPress, make sure – you’ve removed unused Themes on the Appearance -> Themes page in the dashboard.
Remove Unused Plugins
Plugins in WordPress help users extend WordPress functionality. The rule of thumb is to keep fewer plugins in WordPress and, if you’re not using a specific plugin – remove it.
In WordPress dashboard – use the Plugins page for managing WordPress assets.
Bulk-optimize Images and install a plugin for automatic optimization on Upload
In WordPress, you can optimize Images with manual routines or by using WordPress plugins for Image Optimization.
Image optimization helps you decrease image size, adjust resolution, and reset dimensions without losing quality – helping you speed up WordPress pages.
Head over to the Plugins page in the dashboard – and – install a plugin for Image Optimization on Upload. In this case, WP Smush, Short Pixel, and Optimole play well for bulk optimization and automatic optimization on upload.
WordPress cache helps users browse sites’ pages quickly.
In WordPress, a cache plugin helps users save page assets, such as CSS styles on server-client ends – helping users speed up page access across various devices.
To get started, use W3 Total Cache in WordPress, helping you automatically set the WordPress cache. To find out if a cache plugin improves your site, check your site’s speed before and after installing a cache plugin in WordPress.
Use the Plugins -> Add New page for plugin installations, activation, and setup in WordPress dashboard.
If possible, investing a few dollars setting up a premium plugin will benefit – you wouldn’t believe how much WP Rocket helps you speed up WordPress.
Content Delivery Network (CDN)
Content Delivery Networks – help users quickly serve WordPress pages across the Globe.
A Content Delivery Network (CDN) refers to a network of servers used to speed up accessing information by caching, storing, and managing content across regions.
Once you’ve set up WordPress, you can set up free CDN services to speed up your site’s cache, speed, and user experience.
Remove default Posts
Hello World – the WordPress default post(s) need removal after you’ve installed WordPress.
Default posts in WordPress help users experience editing, blog post layout, and WordPress editor.
To start removing default posts, head over to the All Posts page in the WordPress dashboard.
404-page redirect and/or removed
A 404 page is displayed – when a page on a WordPress site is not found.
In usual scenarios, a default 404 page is used in WordPress. However – using a different page helps users improve their users’ experience.
Once you’ve created a 404 page, you’ll need to set the following measures.
- Log into Hosting cPanel -> File Manager and upload the new 404 page to Root. Make sure – you’ve uploaded the page in the correct extension, file permissions, and position.
- If you don’t prefer changing cPanel options, configure redirects from old to new 404 pages. In this case – use the Redirects plugin in WordPress dashboard.
- If you’re using a WordPress page builder, such as Divi Builder or Elementor – creating a custom 404 template helps you improve users’ experience – even more.
Note: In case of uploading a new 404 page to Hosting cPanel -> File Manager, you’ll need to create custom HTML Templates for 404 pages. Remember – you don’t need to set all measures listed above; doing a single Task is enough.
Sitemap creation, submit to GSC
An XML Sitemap includes a WordPress site’s URLs. Search engines like Google – use sitemaps to crawl, index, and manage URLs on a website.
In WordPress, a default sitemap is automatically created once you’ve installed the WordPress core – located at /wp-sitemap.xml. You can also develop sitemaps with a WordPress plugin like Yoast SEO.
Once you’ve created one, the Sitemaps page in Google Search Console helps you submit your site’s URL.
Favicon refers to the Icon at the top of a browser’s Tab – when a page is loaded in the window.
After you’ve installed WordPress, you can set up Favicon in Appearance -> Customizer in the WordPress dashboard.
A Favicon doesn’t help you improve the site’s Technical(s) but somewhat enhances the site’s visibility in SERPs – as shown in the screenshot below.
In standard scenarios – WordPress allows uploading Favicon images in 512*512 dimensions.
Google Analytics setup
Google Analytics is a free tool by Google – helping users measure sites’ traffic in WordPress.
Once creating content, you should setup Google Analytics in WordPress. For more information on setting up Google Analytics, follow Google’s official resource.
Default posts’ category setup
WordPress creates a default category for posts, spelled as Uncategorized. Keep in mind – the default category is automatically assigned to WordPress posts.
In this case – head over to the Posts -> Categories page in the dashboard and rename the default category. Click Quick Edit under the default category once you’ve landed on the Categories page.
Social media links
Displaying social media icons on WordPress Home helps you connect with your audience.
In this case – WordPress Themes help users show profiles in Footer – make sure you’ve found similar options.
If you can attend WordPress on a daily routine, better if you manage doing the following Tasks for WordPress maintenance.
Check the website’s availability
Checking your site’s availability on a daily basis – helps you make sure your site is working properly. In this case, ensure your site’s Home page loads correctly.
Here is – how to check your WordPress site’s availability online.
In Windows, open CMD by typing “cmd” in the start menu. Once opened, type in ping google.com and press Enter.
As you can see, you’ve received replies from the server, which show your site’s server is online – as shown in the screenshot below.
Note: Make sure – you’ve replaced google.com with your site’s address. This ensures your site’s server has no issues.
Let’s use Online Tools to check for a site’s availability online.
Head to Is It Down Right Now and enter your site’s address. The next page shows if your site is accessible from different locations – as shown in the screenshot below.
Note: For checking site’s availability, you can also use an Uptime monitoring service.
WordPress backups help users quickly restore sites – if – something wrong happens in WordPress, such as data loss.
In WordPress, taking daily backups is a matter of minutes. In this case, WordPress plugins help you quickly set up backup routines.
For example – Up Draft Plus takes WordPress backups, uploads to Google Drive, and helps you manage the entire process, from taking WordPress backups to restoring sites with point-and-click options.
Note: You don’t need daily backups – if your site is small enough. For beginners, you can float with periodic backups as you update your WordPress site.
Throughout a month, weekly tasks help users maintain WordPress on quarterly basis.
Update WordPress Plugins and Backups
WordPress assets – including Themes, Plugins, and 3rd party scripts- need updating regularly – especially when a new update rolls out.
Updating WordPress assets helps users prevent hacking attempts, as outdated assets carry security loopholes.
On the Plugins page in the dashboard, you can update WordPress plugins – or – see WordPress’ Updates page for more information. In this case – you can also make WordPress update plugins automatically.
Similarly, Backups help users recover sites from disasters. Learn above, how you can take periodic backups for WordPress sites.
Due to various assets in WordPress, sites become vulnerable with Time.
Fortunately, WordPress plugins like WordFence help users track weak points, such as scanning a site for loopholes, alerts, and blocking suspicious requests.
Tightening a WordPress site’s security needs Technical expertise; however, scanning your site with a Scanner may come up with solid pointers. However, don’t change WordPress measures – if you don’t know what you’re doing.
Check plugins for vulnerabilities
As shown in the screenshot below – you can scan your site’s plugins for security updates, loopholes, and weak points.
Use the above scanner for more information – or – hire WordPress security professionals for a small fee.
Check website for vulnerabilities
Checking WordPress sites for security loopholes is a detailed process, includes fingerprinting, scanning, validating, and fixing weak points.
Beginners – in this case, fall short of managing the whole process, may affect the site’s stability. So – better if you could outsource WordPress security.
However – scanning your site with a Tool may help identify common loopholes in WordPress.
Test the website’s functionalities
WordPress infrastructure has various areas – performance, speed, optimization, managing content, database cleaning, and user management – to name a few.
To ensure if Things are working correctly in WordPress needs expertise. However, proceed if you can test things manually, such as providing strong user passwords.
Check WordPress site diagnostics
WordPress has a built-in feature That helps users check the site’s functionalities – available in Dashboard.
Once logged into the WP dashboard, head over to Tools -> Site Health page – as shown in the screenshot below.
You can see – if certain elements need attention, such as updating Themes. Here – you can see if you can tweak WordPress for improved performance.
Run malware scan
In WordPress, you can quickly scan your site for malware. For example – using WordFence, initiating a scan for malware is quick and easy.
Once logged into the WP dashboard, navigate to WordFence -> Scan page and click the Start New Scan button, as shown in the screenshot below.
Remove Spam and Revisions
As WordPress grows – spam comments and revisions populate WordPress site’s database.
In WordPress, un-meaningful comments on Posts refer to Spam – you can safely remove spam comments in the dashboard, or better – if you prefer installing Akismet for spam protection.
On the other hand, post revisions are stored variations of changes in WordPress pages and posts. Post revisions help users quickly restore previous versions of a page or post.
However – keeping post revisions populates WordPress database and doesn’t help users who rarely update their sites’ content. In this case – you can safely remove post revisions if you keep taking periodic backups in WordPress.
To start removing post revisions, head over to Dashboard -> Plugins and install the Better Delete Revisions plugin – helping you remove post revisions with a point-and-click user interface – as shown in the screenshot below.
Check visitors’ numbers (Google Analytics)
Traffic stats in Google Analytics help you re-form marketing strategy and help you spot – if something is unusual.
Once logged into Google Analytics, the Home Feed helps you see your site’s daily, weekly, monthly, or annual traffic. Use Traffic Filters to see traffic stats between specific dates.
Find and Fix Broken Hyperlinks
Broken Links hurt a site’s user experience, search rankings, and structure.
In WordPress – manual routines, WordPress plugins, and Chrome extensions can help you find and fix broken links.
For beginners, using Chrome extensions is ideal and requires no special expertise. You can also proceed with manual routines if your site is small and you know how to manually find and fix broken links.
Let’s learn how to find broken links with Chrome extensions.
First – install and activate the Broken Link Checker Chrome extension. Once completed, visit the page you’d like to check for broken links.
Second – once a page has loaded, click the icon at the top – as shown in the screenshot below.
The plugin highlights broken links, as shown above. Now, you can manually update hyperlinks or better, if you hire WordPress support specialists for bigger sites.
A WordPress site needs maintenance on a monthly basis – once a site has been updating with assets, content, media files, and functionalities throughout a month.
Monthly WordPress maintenance includes taking care of performance routines on a monthly basis and includes the following key points.
Image Optimization in WordPress helps users improve site speed and includes resizing, compressing, and changing images for improved page speed.
In WordPress – there are two scenarios for image optimization – manual and automated routines.
Optimizing fewer images is made possible with Tools such as Image Optimizer – helping you upload, optimize, and download optimized images.
Second – plugins like Short Pixel help you optimize images on upload – or – you can also bulk-optimize WordPress images with a few clicks.
Note: Official Tools’ resources provide more information on – how to use plugins, manual routines, or web Tools for image optimization.
Speed Test with GTMetrix
GTMetrix helps owners test their sites’ speed and helps them identify – which measures are affecting their site’s page speed.
Once you enter the site address in GTMetrix, you can see which measures affect your site speed.
As speed improvement needs developers’ assistance, beginners should only bother changing WordPress measures if they’re confident.
We recommend hiring speed specialists for assistance. Here – the cost of breaking down WordPress is high than hiring support professionals. We can help – if you check our pricing plans for speed optimization; affordable, manageable, and supportive like no others in the market.
Cleaning WordPress’ database helps users improve site speed. Although – you can clean WordPress database with plugins, such as Advanced Database Cleaner, making changes manually is the best option for beginners.
However, don’t change WordPress measures if making changes would hurt your site’s functionality.
In this case, cleaning the WordPress database includes removing unused assets, deleting post revisions, managing spam comments, optimizing media, and dealing with unused meta information.
Note: Smaller sites don’t require database optimization. Proceed only – if you think your site is updating regularly. Read this detailed tutorial for more information on cleaning, optimizing, and managing WordPress databases.
Ensure strong passwords
Ensuring strong passwords in WordPress is easy – use the WordPress default feature.
When a new user is created, WordPress automatically creates a strong password. Here – you need to leave WordPress password unchanged if you prefer using WordPress’ default feature for strong passwords.
Here – ensuring strong passwords for users has different scenarios.
- If a WordPress site is managed with User Generated Content (UGC), you may need to see if you can handle strong passwords with a custom plan, such as WordPress Plugins – Hence, the number of users is high in membership sites.
- If a WordPress site accommodates a small team, checking users’ passwords manually is ideal. In WordPress, administrators can edit, manage, and change details for user accounts.
Note: Make sure – users with more privileges have strong passwords. High-privileged users, if compromised – can lead to catastrophic damages for WordPress security, stability, and functionality.
Check Google Search Console for Errors
Google Search Console helps users fix site errors, improve search visibility, and track keywords’ performance on SERPs.
Once logged into GSC – navigate to the Indexing -> Pages report. Below, you can see a list of errors found – as shown in the screenshot below.
Fixing GSC errors requires Technical expertise. If you need more knowledge, don’t bother changing measures in GSC; instead, prefer hiring WordPress support professionals for assistance.
Check positions in Google via GSC
In Google Search Console, you can check your site’s keywords’ positions. The process helps you see if the strategy for driving organic traffic needs attention.
Let’s learn how to check for keywords’ positions in Google Search Console.
Once logged into GSC, the Performance tab helps you see a list of your site’s keywords and ranking positions on Google SERPs – as shown in the screenshot below.
Note: In GSC – exporting keywords’ data is quick, helping you perform content optimization for improved rankings.
Check PHP version
In WordPress dashboard, you can see your site’s PHP version on the Tools -> Site Health page.
You’ll need to update PHP if your site’s current infrastructure is not supported – resulting in functionality defects in WordPress. For example – Divi Builder fails to load if your site runs with outdated PHP.
To get started, you’ll need to log into Hosting cPanel’s options. Once logged in, look for PHP version. The next page should provide opportunities to upgrade PHP version.
If, for example – you need Technical assistance, contact your Hosting support representatives. Better if you stop taking action if you don’t know – what you’re doing.
Check your site’s Mobile version
If your WordPress site is optimized for mobile search, a good user experience can positively affect your site’s search visibility.
Fortunately – specific Tools help you test your site for the mobile experience. For example, Mobile Ready can test your site for mobile usability – as shown in the screenshot below.
In most cases, if your site has mobile usability issues, it may need redesigning. In this case, if you need expertise, better if you hire WordPress specialists for the job.
Contact Forms functionality
Check – if forms on your site accept user inputs.
If forms on a WordPress site don’t play well, contact requests, leads, or custom quote requests are not delivered.
For example, enter information in popup forms, lead-capturing opt-ins, and sidebar widgets to see if you can receive user inputs. Similarly, you can check if your site’s contact form is performing well.
Note: Don’t rely on automated tools to check Forms’ functionality. In this case – checking forms manually ensures forms’ validity in WordPress.
Remove Trashed Pages and Posts
As WordPress grows with content – editing, changing, or removing posts is normal.
However – you shouldn’t wipe out Trashed items quickly. After a month – if you don’t need Trashed items, you can safely remove Them.
Removing unnecessary Trashed assets helps users clean WordPress database. You can also remove Trashed assets if you take periodic Backups on a regular basis.
In this case – the Trash section on Pages and Posts pages helps you wipe out everything.
Annual tasks for WordPress maintenance are rare and are performed when an yearly cycle has ended.
Renew SSL certificate
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a standard procedure for data communication. Between server and client, SSL helps users protect sensitive data from sniffing.
SSL is setup automatically after you’ve purchased a new Hosting and Domain name. However, SSL certificates need updating on an annual basis.
In this case – once an SSL drives close to expiry, web admins can receive renewal notifications from Web Hosting companies.
To get started, you can also update your site’s SSL in your hosting account – or – ask for your Hosting support’s assistance if you lack Technical expertise.
Renew premium plugins’ license
If your site is powered by premium Themes, Plugins, or 3rd party Scripts in WordPress, you should observe tracks of expiry dates.
In this case – vendors notify users of expiry deadlines. For example – ConvertKit, an email marketing Tool, informs users when a plan is going to expire in the near Future.
If you ignore expiring assets, functionality on WordPress may get affection. For example – if you don’t upgrade ConvertKit’s plan, opt-in forms on WordPress stop accepting user inputs.
Renew Hosting and Domain name
Web Hosting and Domain names are purchased on an annual basis. When a plan expires, companies allow specific deadlines for renewal.
In this case, log into your Hosting account and see – if a plan needs renewal, as shown in the screenshot below for Namecheap.
Once logged in, you can renew your Hosting and Domain plans. In this regard, companies notify users of renewal deadlines once a plan’s expiry drives near.
Learn how to proceed with practical procedures?
Manual Routines vs Automation for WordPress Maintenance
Manual routines require Technical expertise, not recommended for beginners.
Similarly, WordPress automation may help maintain WordPress with minor changes, such as automatically trashing spam comments with Akismet. However, automation may require human supervision in the end.
Assess if you can maintain WordPress functionality with manual routines, it needs expertise, as described above.
Act if you can proceed with automation, manual routines, or WordPress plugins.
Manage once you’ve performed maintenance routines, you need to see if Things went normal.
Do Maintenance Yourself vs outsourcing to WordPress Support Specialists
If your site is getting more Traffic, business leads, and revenue – chances are – the Time, cost, and management stacks would become far more complex.
Here – you need to re-Think, if doing maintenance yourself may cost and harm your business, revenue, and management routines.
For example – if you need expertise, you can break your WordPress site, ending up paying WordPress developers for site recovery and maintenance.
On the other hand – outsourcing WordPress maintenance helps you ensure WordPress stability, maintenance, and performance.
Here is a Table of comparison for doing WordPress maintenance vs outsourcing to Support professionals.
Note: Manual routines of WordPress website maintenance cost you more after you’ve calculated risk level, business hours, cost of failures, and expertise required. Instead – for a small fee, you can outsource WordPress maintenance for no risks, improved performance, and detailed reports. In this case, don’t forget to check our packages for WordPress website maintenance tasks, security checks, and site speed improvements.
One-Time, Real-Time, and Human vs Automated procedures
One-Time fixes include fixing rarely-occurred WordPress bugs, such as errors in the database connection. One-Time bugs don’t need attention on a regular basis.
Checking your site’s performance in LIVE conditions refers to Real-Time monitoring.
For example – Google Analytics helps you see your site’s live traffic. You can see which pages are getting more visitors – helping you efficiently turn visitors into paying subscribers.
You can also Real-Time monitor your site for security, brute force attacks, lead capturing, and customer reviews.
Human vs Automatic procedures
In WordPress, automation may end up affecting your site’s infrastructure. For example – automating spam management may trash genuine comments.
Having that clarified – if you know how to do WordPress maintenance, proceed. In this case, Outsourcing WordPress maintenance is even more promising.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
What does WordPress maintenance include?
WordPress backups, managing content, error handling, speed optimization, and security precautions fall under WordPress maintenance.
How to do maintenance on WordPress?
WordPress maintenance is performed in three ways – manual expertise (personal), WordPress plugins, and WordPress support specialists. If you’re confident, you can perform WordPress maintenance yourself. On the other hand – WordPress plugins may help you perform minor Tasks, such as automating trashing spam comments. Similarly – better if you outsource WordPress maintenance to professionals – who help you perform everything, from simple Tasks to more complex routines, such as database cleaning, error handling, and site migration.
When to perform WordPress maintenance tasks?
A WordPress site needs maintenance when things are going wrong, such as site speed, security precautions, and site performance. In this resource, we’ve described maintenance routines for WordPress sites – daily, weekly, monthly, and annually.
Does WordPress need real-time maintenance?
For small sites, WordPress doesn’t require real-time maintenance; however, it needs periodic routines, such as trashing spam comments. Similarly, if a site is big enough, it may need real-time maintenance – daily, weekly, or monthly as described in this resource.
Can we perform WordPress maintenance for free?
Yes – if you’re skilled enough and know what needs attention in WordPress maintenance, you can perform WordPress maintenance for free. Expertise required for WordPress maintenance include infrastructural expertise, plugins, error handling, backups, security, and content management.
What about WordPress manual maintenance routines?
Manual maintenance is tricky – especially for those who lack WordPress expertise. If you know how WordPress works, you can perform WordPress maintenance – manually. We recommend hiring WordPress support professionals for assistance if you’re not confident doing WordPress manual routines.
What is maintenance mode in WordPress?
In simple words – WordPress maintenance mode refers to – when a site is unavailable for maintenance routines. In normal scenarios, developers prefer putting WordPress on maintenance mode via showing a page That helps users understand if a site is down for maintenance. WordPress maintenance mode is setup with plugins, such as SeedProd. You can also create WordPress maintenance mode without a plugin.
How to use WordPress plugins for maintenance?
Once installed a plugin for WordPress maintenance, such as WP Optimize – you can use the point-and-click options for automated maintenance tweaks in WordPress.
Specific plugins help users automate WordPress maintenance, such as managing spam comments. However – we recommend denying automation for WordPress maintenance unless typically required. The best choice is to hire WordPress support professionals if you lack WordPress expertise.
How long does WordPress maintenance take?
The time required for WordPress maintenance depends on complexity, number of Tasks, and expertise level required. A normal routine may take several hours, such as checking for updates, security precautions, backups, and assessing SEO rankings.
Is WordPress maintenance necessary for security?
Yes – WordPress needs looking after for security precautions. In this case, hundreds of loopholes are discovered in WordPress assets on a daily basis. The rule of thumb is – if a WordPress site is left alone, unattended – hackers may exploit hidden loopholes to gain access levels on a WordPress site.
How much do you charge for WordPress maintenance?
For WordPress maintenance – our plans start from $60 for basic users. For more information on plans, features, and custom plans for WordPress maintenance, see our pricing page.
Does WordPress have maintenance mode?
By default, WordPress doesn’t seem to have a maintenance mode. However, plugins like SeedProd, Light Start, and Site Offline are examples of WordPress maintenance plugins for free. If you prefer creating WordPress maintenance mode manually, you’ll need to create a simple HTML index, upload it to Hosting File Manager (Root), and make it available online.
WordPress maintenance is essential, especially regarding a site’s stability, performance, and business.
In this article – we learned how to maintain a WordPress site with daily, weekly, monthly, and annual Tasks.
If you need more Technical expertise, don’t bother changing WordPress functionality. Better – if you hire WordPress support professionals for periodic maintenance.
Have you ever thought of manual maintenance or need to hire WordPress professionals for assistance? Let us know by joining the conversation in the comments, or see our custom plans for WordPress maintenance services.